Direct-indirect speech: General narration rules of English grammar

For Example:
(i) The Old man said, “My son! I live for you. But it does’nt mean that you can treat me as you like”.
The Old man told his son that he lived for him but it did’nt mean that he could treat him as he liked.

(ii) A student came to me and said, “Sir! I shall be obliged to you if you will grant me three days leave. I have to go to my village to see my mother”
A student came to me and respectfully said that he would be obliged to me if I would grant hem three days leave as he had to go to his village to see his mother.
(iii) “Aslam” said the Princess sternly, “I command you to tell me what the old man had said”.
The Princess sternly commanded Aslam to tell her what the old man had said.
(iv) When Asif approached his father, he said, “My son, I shall forgive you if you confess all your sins”.
When Asif approached his father, he(father) told him(Asif) that he would forgive him if he confessed all his sins.

Conversion of Interrogative Sentences (From Direct to Indirect Speech)

While changing the interrogative sentences into Indirect Speech, the following rules should be observed:
Rules (1):
In converting an Interrogative sentence into Indirect Speech, the following rules should be observed .

a) Change the Reporting Verb into ask, enquire, demand, wonder, want to know, etc. Note that enquire and demand are followed by the preposition “of”.

b) Change the Interrogative form into the Assertive form and remove the sign of Interrogative

c) No conjunction is used when the sentence begins with question words like who, whose, whom, what, which, when, why, where, how, etc.

d) Tenses, pronouns and words denoting nearness are changed according to the rules.
(i) She said to me, “What can I do for you, dear?”
She asked me affectionately what she could do for me.
(ii) The old man said to his son, “What harm have I done to you?”
The old man asked his son what harm he had done to him.


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Our staff explores the Internet what’s possible and share knowledge and information with career seekers. They also Like to dig into various leading newspapers, important books, magazines etc. for important questions and MCQs. The team is led by Iqbal Hussain

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