Direct-indirect speech: General narration rules of English grammar

b) When the Reported Speech contains a time clause and both the main verb and the verb in the time clause are the simple past, these verbs are left unchanged.
As;
(i) He said, “The boy stuck to his post till his father ordered him to leave”.
He said that the boy stuck to his post till his father ordered him to leave.
(ii) She said, “The rude girl was disappointed when the fairy refused to help her”.
She said that the rude girl was disappointed when the fairy refused to help her.

⇔ However, if the main verb is in the simple past while the verb in the time clause as in past continuous, it is usual to change the main verb to past perfect and leave the verb in the time clause unchanged:
As;
(i) He said, “Asif slipped when he was trying to board a bus”.
He said that Asif had slipped when he was trying to board a bus.
(ii) He said, “Aslam died when his son was still struggling to get established in business”
He said that Aslam had died when his son was still struggling to get established in business.

c) If the Reported Speech describes a state of affairs which still exists when the speech is reported, its tense normally remains unchanged:
As;
(i) She said, “Whatever Asim does displeases his father”.
She said that whatever Asim does displeases his father.
(ii) He said, “Kamran’s wife wants to become rich by winning a lottery”.
He said that Karmran’s wife want to become rich by winning a lottery.

RULES FOR THE CHANGE OF PRONOUNS:

(a)First Person:
Pronouns of the first person are changed into pronouns of the same person as the person of the subject of the Reporting Verb:
As;
(i) I said, “I have done my home work”.
I said the I had done my home work.
(ii) You said, “I have done my home work”.
You said that you had done your home work.
(iii) He said, “I have done my home work”.
He said that he had done his home work.

(b)Second Person:
Pronouns of the second person are changed into pronouns of the same person as that of the object of the Reporting Verb:
As;
(i) The teacher said to me, “You have not done your work well”.
The teacher told me that I had not done my work well.
(ii) The teacher said to you, “You have not done your work well”.
The teacher told you that you had not done your work well.
(iii) The teacher said to him, “You have not done your work well”.
The teacher told him that he had not done his work well.

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About the Author: GFC Staff

Our staff explores the Internet what’s possible and share knowledge and information with career seekers. They also Like to dig into various leading newspapers, important books, magazines etc. for important questions and MCQs. The team is led by Iqbal Hussain

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