The knowledge of how to stimulate the students to participate meaningfully in classroom will go a long way in assisting the teachers.
This unit therefore provides the learners the opportunity to understand different theories of motivation and how to apply these theories to their day-to-day classroom teaching/learning activities.
DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION
Motivation can be defined as an inspiration that propels someone into an action. It is an internal state or condition that activates and gives direction to our thoughts, feelings, and actions (Lahey, 1995). In the opinion of Oladele (1998), motivation is a process by which the learner’s internal energies are directed toward various goal objects in his/her environment. These energies or arousals push an individual in achieving his goals. An individual may be highly motivated to perform well in a task and completely unmotivated in another. This means that when people are motivated, they will work tirelessly to achieve their aspirations.
Maslow (1970) believed that motivation leads to growth and development, and that need satisfaction is the most important sole factor underlying motivation. Maslow furthered explained that man is perpetually in needs and that the resources to satisfy those needs are limited.
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
There are two types of motivation or arousals. They can either be internally or externally driven. The desire for food or sex arises from within us (intrinsic), while the yearning to obtain recognition or approval is influenced by the conditions in our environment (extrinsic). In view of the above explanation, motivation is divided into intrinsic and extrinsic.
1. Intrinsic Motivation: Is an internal force or motive within the individual which propels •him/her into emitting certain behavior. It is an innate or genetically predetermined disposition to behave in a particular way when he/she faces a particular situation. This type of motivation can make an individual to have the feelings of self confidence and competence (Deci and Ryan, 1985). A student who is intrinsically motivated may carry out a task because of the enjoyment he/she derives from such a task. In another way. acdog that sees a bone and runs or it, did that because of the satisfaction it derives from eating bone. This type of behavior does not require any prior learning. Sighting the bone changes the behavior of the dog and propels it to act.
2. Extrinsic Motivation: Is the external or environmental factor which sets the individual’s behavior into motion. It is the incentive/reinforcer that drives an individual’s behavior towards a goal. A student that is extrinsically motivated will execute an action in order to obtain some reward or avoid some sanctions. For example, a student who read hard for the examination did so because of the desire to obtain better grade. The case also goes for a runner who wants to win a prize, he/ she will need constant practice than a person who wants to run for the fun of it.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Several theories on motivation have been developed by different psychologists. Notable among them are Abraham Maslow, Henry Murray and Sigmund Freud. In this paper, attempt will be made to discuss that of Maslow and Murray.
Maslow’s Theory of Motivation
Abraham Maslow was a foremost Psychologist. He developed a theory (Human Needs) in which he identified seven vital human needs according to level of urgency or exigency. These needs according to the Maslow is:
1. Physiological Needs
2. Security and Safety Needs
3. Love and Belongingness Needs
4. Achievement Needs
5. Aesthetic Needs
6. Self-Actualization Needs
Henry Murray’s Theory of Motivation
Murray like Maslow also propounded the theory of motivation. He divided his theory into two, viscerogenic and psychogenic needs
1. Viscerogenic Needs: These are referred to as biological or physiological needs. They are the primary needs and these include the desire for water, sex, sleep, food, air and excretion of waste products. They are the higher order needs.
2. Psychogenic Needs: These needs correspond with other needs in Maslow’s theory. They are secondary needs. Examples of these are the longing for safety and security, love and comradeship, self-esteem, beautiful things or serene environment, rare or dominant positions etc.
FACTORS AFFECTING MOTIVATION
(i) Reward & Punishment : It is a very important factor which affects motivation. If proper reward is given at proper time and proper manner it leads to effective learning and enhances children, interest in learning. On the other hand punishment should not develop inferiority complex among students and it may sometimes lead to dislike towards learning.
(ii) Opportunity to participate : When suitable opportunities are provided to students in different activities then they actively participate in them.
(iii) Competition : Competition is a strong factor which affects motivation. If we inculcate spirit of competition among students it leads to self motivation.
(iv) Evaluation : Knowledge regarding progress of child with help of various tools and techniques can lead to learning.
(v) Using Teaching Aids : Use of appropriate teaching aids at proper time helps to explain and clarify difficult concepts in subject like Math’s, Science, Geography. Teaching without use of teaching aids becomes dull, monotonous and leads into poor learning as pupils are not motivated.
(vi) Teacher pupil relationship : Good relationship between teacher pupil helps in motivating pupils for learning. If no good intimate relationship is developed then pupils do not show interest in learning.
(vii) Classroom environment : Affects learning as it has direct relationship for motivating students. Good classroom environment leads to effective learning where as unpleasant environment does not lead to effective learning.
(viii) Use of effective methodology : New novel methods help in creating interest and motivation leading to learning. Traditional methods i.e. Lecture method creates boredom and dislike towards the subject.