Child Development and Pedagogy
1. Children Growth and Development (Primary School Child) – Page No. 1
2. Individual Differences – Page No. 2
3. Educating Exceptional Children – Page No. 3
4. Learning – Page No. 4
5. Motivation – Page No. 5
6. Personality – Coming soon
7. Mental Health and Hygiene – Coming soon
8. Intelligence – Coming soon
9. Creativity and Interest – Coming soon
10. Teaching: Concept, Process and Assessment – Coming soon
11. Learning and Pedagogy
12. Model Questions(MCQs) – Coming soon
Child Growth and Development (Primary School Child)
INTRODUCTION: Child development refers to the biological and psychological changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development.
The two main points of difference between growth and development are as follows:
(a) Growth denotes the structural and physical changes within the body of the individual right from the moment of conception to the adult period. Development refers to growth and the scope of physical and mental progress a person is capable of achieving.
(b) Growth denotes quantitative changes; it shows an increase in the size and structure of the body and organs. Development refers to changes which are qualitative and directional. The changes are improvement and move forward rather than backward.
Maturation: Maturation is the unfolding of biologically predetermined patterns of behavior due to simply getting old.
Learning: Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience.
PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:
The most well-known and influential theory of cognitive development is that of Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980). Piaget’s theory, first published in 1952, grew out of deco:1es of extensive observation of children, including his own, in their natural environments as opposed to the laboratory experiments of the behaviorists. Although Piaget was interested in how children reacted to their environment, he proposed a more active role for them than that suggested by learning theory. He envisioned a child’s knowledge as composed of schemas, basic units of knowledge used to organize past experiences and serve as a basis for understanding new ones.
At the center of Piaget’s theory is the principle that cognitive development occurs in a series of four distinct, universal stages, each characterized by increasingly sophisticated and abstract levels of thought. These stages always occur in the same order, and each builds on what was learned in the previous stage.
They are as follows:
STAGE 1. SENSORIMOTOR:
APPROXIMATE AGE: Birth to 2 yrs
DESCRIPTION : Behavior suggests child lacks language and does not use symbols or mental representations of objects in environment. Simple responding to the environment reflexes) ends, and intentional behavior such as making interesting sights last-begins. Child learns to seek hidden objects and begins to acquire basic language.
STAGE 2. PREOPERATIONAL
APPROXIMATE AGE : 2 TO 7 yrs
DESCRIPTION : Child begins to represent world mentally, but thought in egocentric. Child does not focus on two aspects of situations at once (lack of conservation). Child shows animism, artificialism, immanent justice.
STAGE 3. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL
APPROXIMATE AGE: 7 TO 12 yrs
DESCRIPTION : Child shows conservation concepts, can adopt viewpoint of others, can classify objects in series (For example, from shortest to longest and shows comprehension o basic relational concepts (such as on object being Mature, adult thought emerges; thinking seems characterized by deductive logic, consideration of various possibilities before attempting to solve a problem (mental trial and error).
STAGE 4. FORMAL OPERATIONAL
APPROXIMATE AGE: 12 Y rs. & above
DESCRIPTION : Abstract thought (for instance, philosophical and consideration of moral principles), and forming and testing of hypothesis.
IMPLICATIONS OF PIAGET’S THEORY:
Knowing how cognitive abilities develop helps educators and psychologists suggest ways to facilitate children’s intellectual development. Piaget recognized that parental love and interaction are essential in first two years. He also stressed the importance of providing great amount of stimulation, both physical & intellectual. Piaget was concerned with how people think, not what they think, knowing the way children think, psychologists can learn how to facilitate thinking. Piagets powerful insights into children’s behavior have profoundly influenced developmental psychology.
Types of Development
Physical: Brain development
Personal: Erikson Social: Kohlberg
– At the time of birth, the child is physically immature,
– By first month, eye fixation is possible,
– By third month, audition and taste develop and rapid growth takes place,
– By sixth month, glandular system develops,
– By first year, crawling, sitting, formation of teeth, standing with support, walking with support takes place,
– By second year, play activities like kicking a ball develop,
– By third year, motor-coordination begins,
– By fourth year, neuro-muscular co-ordination develops to a satisfactory extent.
– By fifth & sixth years, continuation of growth and consolidation of muscular abilities take place, and physical stability is ensured.
Late Childhood :
– Interest in varied physical and play activities increases,
– Improvement in neuro-muscular co-ordination takes place,
– Brain capacity also improves,
– Normal functioning of glandular systems and formation of new teeth,
– Sex interest begins and considerable physical stability is attained.
– It is the period of rapid growth and development,
– Changes in face, head, body, limbs occurs,
– Development of secondary sex characters begins,
– Maturation of reproductive system also takes place,
– Further physical maturity is induced by the gonads and pituitary glands,
– Bones get stronger and voice becomes rough, and
– Physical maturity is attained to the optimum level.
The M-O-V-E Formula for Physical Growth in Children The principles of the M,O-V-E formula for assisting children with physical growth and development are as follows:
• Equipment, encouragement and enthusiasm
Cognitive development sometimes referred to as “intellectual” or “mental” development includes thinking, perception, memory, reasoning, concept development, problem solving ability, and abstract thinking. Language, with its requirements of symbolization and memory, is one of the most important and complicated cognitive activities.
It is important to differentiate language and speech. Understanding and formulating language is a complex cognitive activity. Speaking, however, is a motor activity. Language and speech are controlled by different parts of the brain.
|Age: One month||Activity: Watches person when spoken to.|
|Age: Two months||Activity: Smiles at familiar person talking. Begins to follow moving person with eyes.|
|Age: Four months||Activity: Shows interest in bottle, breast, familiar toy, or new surroundings|
|Age: Five months||Activity: Smiles at own image in mirror. Looks for fallen objects|
|Age: Six months||Activity: May stick out tongue in imitation. Laughs at peekaboo game. Vocalizes at mirror image. May act shy around strangers.|
|Age: Seven months||Activity: Responds to own name. Tries to establish contact with a person by cough or other noise.|
|Age: Eight months||Activity: Reaches for toys out of reach. Responds to “no.”|
|Age: Nine months||Activity: Shows like and dislikes. May try to prevent face-washing or other activity that is disliked. Shows excitement and interest in foods or toys that are well-liked.|
|Age: Ten months||Activity: Starts to understand some words. Waves bye-bye. Holds out arm or leg for dressing.|
|Age: Eleven months||Activity: Repeats performance that is laughed at. Likes repetitive play. Shows interest in books.|
|Age: Twelve months||Activity: May understand some “where is…?” questions. May kiss on request.|
|Age: Fifteen months||Activity: Asks for objects by pointing. Starting to feed self. Negativism begins.|
|Age: Eighteen months||Activity: Points to familiar objects when asked “where is…?” Mimics familiar adult activities. Know some body parts. Obeys two or three simple orders.|
|Age: Two years||Activity: Names a few familiar objects. Draws with crayons. Obeys found simple orders. Participates in parallel play.|
|Age: Two-and-a-half years||Activity: Names several common objects. Begins to take interest in sex organs. Gives full names. Helps to put things away. Peak of negativism.|
|Age: Three years||Activity: Constantly asks questions. May count to 10. Begins to draw specific objects. Dresses and undresses doll. Participates in cooperative play. Talks about things that have happened.|
|Age: Four years||Activity: May make up silly words and stories. Beginning to draw pictures that represent familiar things. Pretends to read and write. May recognize a few common words, such as own name.|
|Age: Five years||Activity: Can recognize and reproduce many shapes, letters, and numbers. Tells long stories. Begins to understand the difference between real events and make-believe ones. Asks meaning of words.|